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Download Wikipedia for PC. Windows applications cannot be executed from the Linux environment, and vice versa. To reduce the storage footprint of the operating system, Windows 10 automatically compresses system files. The system can reduce the storage footprint of Windows by approximately 1. The level of compression used is dependent on a performance assessment performed during installations or by OEMs , which tests how much compression can be used without harming operating system performance.

Furthermore, the Refresh and Reset functions use runtime system files instead, making a separate recovery partition redundant, allowing patches and updates to remain installed following the operation, and further reducing the amount of space required for Windows 10 by up to 12 GB. Windows 10 introduces Microsoft Edge , a new default web browser. It initially featured a new standards -compliant rendering engine derived from Trident , and also includes annotation tools and integration with other Microsoft platforms present within Windows Every Windows 10 version from 20H2, which was released on October 20, , will come with the new version of the browser preinstalled.

Windows 10 incorporates a universal search box located alongside the Start and Task View buttons, which can be hidden or condensed into a single button. Many of its features are a direct carryover from Windows Phone, including integration with Bing , setting reminders, a Notebook feature for managing personal information, as well as searching for files, playing music, launching applications and setting reminders or sending emails.

Microsoft Family Safety is replaced by Microsoft Family, a parental controls system that applies across Windows platforms and Microsoft online services.

Users can create a designated family, and monitor and restrict the actions of users designated as children, such as access to websites, enforcing age ratings on Microsoft Store purchases, and other restrictions. The service can also send weekly e-mail reports to parents detailing a child’s computer usage.

Credentials are stored in an encrypted form on Microsoft servers and sent to the devices of the selected contacts. Passwords are not viewable by the guest user, and the guest user is not allowed to access other computers or devices on the network. Wi-Fi Sense is not usable on Universal calling and messaging apps for Windows 10 are built in as of the November update: Messaging, Skype Video, and Phone. These offer built-in alternatives to the Skype download and sync with Windows 10 Mobile.

Windows 10 provides greater integration with the Xbox ecosystem. Xbox SmartGlass is succeeded by the Xbox Console Companion formerly the Xbox app , which allows users to browse their game library including both PC and Xbox console games , and Game DVR is also available using a keyboard shortcut , allowing users to save the last 30 seconds of gameplay as a video that can be shared to Xbox Live, OneDrive, or elsewhere.

Windows 10 adds native game recording and screenshot capture ability using the newly introduced Game Bar. Users can also have the OS continuously record gameplay in the background, which then allows the user to save the last few moments of gameplay to the storage device. Windows 10 adds three new default typefaces compared to Windows 8, but omits several others. The removed typefaces are available in supplemental packs and may be added manually over a non-metered internet connection. Windows 10 is available in five main editions for personal computing devices; the Home and Pro editions of which are sold at retail in most countries, and as pre-loaded software on new computers.

Home is aimed at home users, while Pro is aimed at power users and small businesses. Each edition of Windows 10 includes all of the capabilities and features of the edition below it, and add additional features oriented towards their market segments; for example, Pro adds additional networking and security features such as BitLocker , Device Guard, Windows Update for Business, and the ability to join a domain.

Enterprise and Education, the other editions, contain additional features aimed towards business environments, and are only available through volume licensing. As part of Microsoft’s unification strategies, Windows products that are based on Windows 10’s common platform but meant for specialized platforms are marketed as editions of the operating system, rather than as separate product lines. An updated version of Microsoft’s Windows Phone operating system for smartphones, and also tablets, was branded as Windows 10 Mobile.

On May 2, , Microsoft unveiled Windows 10 S referred to in leaks as Windows 10 Cloud , a feature-limited edition of Windows 10 which was designed primarily for devices in the education market competing, in particular, with Chrome OS netbooks , such as the Surface Laptop that Microsoft also unveiled at this time. The OS restricts software installation to applications obtained from Microsoft Store; the device may be upgraded to Windows 10 Pro for a fee to enable unrestricted software installation.

As a time-limited promotion, Microsoft stated that this upgrade would be free on the Surface Laptop until March 31, A public beta program for Windows 10 known as the Windows Insider Program began with the first publicly available preview release on October 1, Insider preview builds are aimed towards enthusiasts and enterprise users for the testing and evaluation of updates and new features.

On July 29, , Microsoft officially announced that Windows 10 would be released for retail purchase as a free upgrade from earlier versions of Windows.

In comparison to previous Windows releases, which had a longer turnover between the release to manufacturing RTM and general release to allow for testing by vendors and in some cases, the development of “upgrade kits” to prepare systems for installation of the new version , an HP executive explained that because it knew Microsoft targeted the operating system for a release, the company was able to optimize its then-current and upcoming products for Windows 10 in advance of its release, negating the need for such a milestone.

The general availability build of Windows 10, numbered , was first released to Windows Insider channels for pre-launch testing on July 15, , prior to its formal release. Windows 10 is distributed digitally through the “Media Creation Tool”, which is functionally identical to the Windows 8 online installer, and can also be used to generate an ISO image or USB install media.

Changing between architectures e. Windows 10 was available in countries and languages upon its launch, and as part of efforts to “re-engage” with users in China, Microsoft also announced that it would partner with Qihoo and Tencent to help promote and distribute Windows 10 in China, and that Chinese PC maker Lenovo would provide assistance at its service centers and retail outlets for helping users upgrade to Windows Windows RT devices cannot be upgraded to Windows During its first year of availability, [] upgrade licenses for Windows 10 could be obtained at no charge for devices with a genuine license for an eligible edition of Windows 7 or 8.

This offer did not apply to Enterprise editions, as customers under an active Software Assurance SA contract with upgrade rights are entitled to obtain Windows 10 Enterprise under their existing terms.

All users running non-genuine copies of Windows, and those without an existing Windows 7 or 8 license, were ineligible for this promotion; although upgrades from a non-genuine version were possible, they result in a non-genuine copy of On the general availability build of Windows 10 the original release , to activate and generate the “digital entitlement” for Windows 10, the operating system must have first been installed as an in-place upgrade.

During the free upgrade, a genuineticket. Once installed, the operating system can be reinstalled on that particular system via normal means without a product key, and the system’s license will automatically be detected via online activation – in essence, the Microsoft Product Activation Server will remember the system’s motherboard and give it the green light for product re-activation.

Since the release of the Fall Creators Update version , Microsoft decided to release multi-edition installation media, to alleviate installation and product activation issues users experienced because of accidentally installing the wrong edition of Windows The Windows Insider Preview version of Windows 10 automatically updated itself to the generally released version as part of the version progression and continues to be updated to new beta builds, as it had throughout the testing process.

Microsoft explicitly stated that Windows Insider was not a valid upgrade path for those running a version of Windows that is ineligible for the upgrade offer; although, if it was not installed with a license carried over from an in-place upgrade to 10 Insider Preview from Windows 7 or 8, the Insider Preview does remain activated as long as the user does not exit the Windows Insider program.

The offer was promoted and delivered via the “Get Windows 10” application also known as GWX , which was automatically installed via Windows Update ahead of Windows 10’s release, and activated on systems deemed eligible for the upgrade offer.

Via a notification area icon, users could access an application that advertised Windows 10 and the free upgrade offer, check device compatibility, and “reserve” an automatic download of the operating system upon its release. Microsoft said that those who reserved Windows 10 would be able to install it through GWX in a phased rollout process.

The operating system could alternatively be downloaded at any time using a separate “Media Creation Tool” setup program, that allows for the creation of DVD or USB installation media. In May , Microsoft announced that the free upgrade offer would be extended to users of assistive technologies ; however, Microsoft did not implement any means of certifying eligibility for this offer, which some outlets thereby promoted as being a loophole to fraudulently obtain a free Windows 10 upgrade.

Microsoft said that the loophole is not intended to be used in this manner. However, another loophole was found that allowed Windows 7 and 8. No word from Microsoft was given whether it will be closed [] and some outlets have continued to promote it as a free method of upgrading from the now-unsupported Windows 7. During upgrades, Windows 10 licenses are not tied directly to a product key. Instead, the license status of the system’s current installation of Windows is migrated, and a “Digital license” known as “Digital entitlement” in version or earlier is generated during the activation process, which is bound to the hardware information collected during the process.

If Windows 10 is reinstalled cleanly and there have not been any significant hardware changes since installation such as a motherboard change , the online activation process will automatically recognize the system’s digital entitlement if no product key is entered during installations.

However, unique product keys are still distributed within retail copies of Windows As with previous non-volume-licensed variants of Windows, significant hardware changes will invalidate the digital entitlement, and require Windows to be re-activated.

Unlike previous versions of Windows, Windows Update does not allow the selective installation of updates, and all updates including patches, feature updates, and driver software are downloaded and installed automatically. Users can only choose whether their system will reboot automatically to install updates when the system is inactive, or be notified to schedule a reboot. Version allows wired Ethernet networks to be designated as metered, but Windows may still download certain updates while connected to a metered network.

In version , by installing the August security update and later versions, driver and non-security updates pushed via Windows Update that are considered optional are no longer automatically downloaded and installed in their devices.

Updates can cause compatibility or other problems; a Microsoft troubleshooter program allows bad updates to be uninstalled. Under the Windows end-user license agreement , users consent to the automatic installation of all updates, features and drivers provided by the service, and implicitly consent “without any additional notice” to the possibility of features being modified or removed. Windows Update can also use a peer-to-peer system for distributing updates; by default, users’ bandwidth is used to distribute previously downloaded updates to other users, in combination with Microsoft servers.

Users can instead choose to only use peer-to-peer updates within their local area network. The original release of Windows 10 receives mainstream support for five years after its original release, followed by five years of extended support, but this is subject to conditions. Microsoft stated that these devices would no longer receive feature updates, but would still receive security updates through January The following table collects current status of the aforementioned updating and support of different branches of Windows Windows 10 is often described by Microsoft as being a “service”, as it receives regular “feature updates” that contain new features and other updates and fixes.

For example, version was released in September the ninth month of This was changed with the 20H2 release where “MM” represents the half of the year in which the update was released, for example H1 for the first half and H2 for the second half.

Before version , the pace at which feature updates are received by devices was dependent on which release channel was used. Each build of Windows 10 is supported for 18 months after its original release. Once a stable build is certified by Microsoft and its partners as being suitable for broad deployment, the build is then released on the “Semi-Annual Channel” formerly “Current Branch for Business”, or “CBB” , which is supported by the Pro and Enterprise editions of Windows The Windows Insider branches receive unstable builds as they are released; it is divided into two channels, “Dev” which receives new builds immediately after their release , and “Beta” whose releases are slightly delayed from their “Dev” release.

For this reason, it excludes Cortana, Microsoft Store, and all bundled Universal Windows Platform apps including but not limited to Microsoft Edge, hence these builds ship only with Internet Explorer as browser. In July , Microsoft announced changes in the terminology for Windows branches as part of its effort to unify the update cadence with that of Office ProPlus and Windows Server In February , Microsoft announced changes again in delivering updates in beginning of release of version : a single SAC will be released and SAC-T will be retired, and users are no longer able to switch to different channels.

Instead, these updates can be deferred from 30 to 90 days, or depending how the device was configured to deferred the updates. Feature updates prior to version were distributed solely as an in-place upgrade installation, requiring the download of a complete operating system package approximately 3.

Unlike previous builds, version was designed primarily as an update rollup version of , which focused primarily on minor feature additions and enhancements. For upgrades to from , a new delivery method was used where its changes were delivered as part of the monthly cumulative update, but were left in a dormant state until the update “enablement” patch is installed. The full upgrade process was still used for those using builds prior to In May , Microsoft unveiled Fluent Design System previously codenamed “Project Neon” , a revamp of Microsoft Design Language 2 that will include guidelines for the designs and interactions used within software designed for all Windows 10 devices and platforms.

The new design language will include the more prominent use of motion, depth, and translucency effects. Microsoft stated that the implementation of this design language would be performed over time, and it had already started to implement elements of it in Creators Update and Fall Creators Update. On December 7, , Microsoft announced that, as part of a partnership with Qualcomm, it planned to introduce support for running Win32 software on ARM architecture with a bit x86 processor emulator, in Terry Myerson stated that this move would enable the production of Qualcomm Snapdragon -based Windows devices with cellular connectivity and improved power efficiency over Intel-compatible devices, and still capable of running the majority of existing Windows software unlike the previous Windows RT , which was restricted to Windows Store apps.

Microsoft is initially targeting this project towards laptops. In August , Microsoft began testing changes to its handling of the user interface on convertible devices—downplaying the existing “Tablet Mode” option in favor of presenting the normal desktop with optimizations for touch when a keyboard is not present, such as increasing the space between taskbar buttons and displaying the virtual keyboard when text fields are selected.

In April , the ability to run Linux applications using a graphical user interface , such as Audacity , directly in Windows, was introduced as a preview. The basic hardware requirements to install Windows 10 were initially the same as those for Windows 8 and Windows 8. As of the May update, the minimum disk space requirement has been increased to 32 GB. In addition, on new installations, Windows permanently reserves up to 7 GB of disk space in order to ensure proper installation of future feature updates.

The bit variants require a CPU that supports certain instructions. Some pre-built devices may be described as “certified” by Microsoft. Unlike Windows 8, OEMs are no longer required to make Secure Boot settings user-configurable, meaning that devices may optionally be locked to run only Microsoft-signed operating systems.

Windows 10 version and later do not support Intel Clover Trail system-on-chips, per Microsoft’s stated policy of only providing updates for devices during their OEM support period. Starting with Windows 10 version , Microsoft will require new OEM devices to use bit processors, and will therefore cease the distribution of x86 bit variants of Windows 10 via OEM channels.

The bit variants of Windows 10 will remain available via non-OEM channels, and Microsoft will continue to “[provide] feature and security updates on these devices”. The maximum amount of RAM that Windows 10 can support varies depending on the product edition and the processor architecture.

Windows 10 supports up to two physical processors. Windows 10 received generally positive reviews, with most reviewers considering it superior to its predecessor Windows 8. The Edge browser was praised for its performance, although it was not in a feature-complete state at launch.

While considering them a “great idea in principle”, concerns were shown for Microsoft’s focus on the universal app ecosystem:. It’s by no means certain that developers are going to flock to Windows 10 from iOS and Android simply because they can convert their apps easily. It may well become a no-brainer for them, but at the moment a conscious decision is still required.

Engadget was similarly positive, noting that the upgrade process was painless and that Windows 10’s user interface had balanced aspects of Windows 8 with those of previous versions with a more mature aesthetic. Cortana’s always-on voice detection was considered to be its “true strength”, also citing its query capabilities and personalization features, but noting that it was not as pre-emptive as Google Now. Windows 10’s stock applications were praised for being improved over their Windows 8 counterparts, and for supporting windowed modes.

The Xbox app was also praised for its Xbox One streaming functionality, although recommending its use over a wired network because of inconsistent quality over Wi-Fi.

In conclusion, it was argued that “Windows 10 delivers the most refined desktop experience ever from Microsoft, and yet it’s so much more than that. It’s also a decent tablet OS, and it’s ready for a world filled with hybrid devices.

And, barring another baffling screwup, it looks like a significant step forward for mobile. Heck, it makes the Xbox One a more useful machine. On the other hand Ars Technica panned the new Tablet mode interface for removing the charms and app switching, making the Start button harder to use by requiring users to reach for the button on the bottom-left rather than at the center of the screen when swiping with a thumb, and for making application switching less instantaneous through the use of Task View.

Microsoft Edge was praised for being “tremendously promising”, and “a much better browser than Internet Explorer ever was”, but criticized it for its lack of functionality on-launch. In conclusion, contrasting Windows 8 as being a “reliable” platform albeit consisting of unfinished concepts, Windows 10 was considered “the best Windows yet”, and was praised for having a better overall concept in its ability to be “comfortable and effective” across a wide array of form factors, but that it was buggier than previous versions of Windows were on-launch.

Critics have noted that Windows 10 heavily emphasizes freemium services, and contains various advertising facilities. Some outlets have considered these to be a hidden “cost” of the free upgrade offer. Archived from the original on June 24, Retrieved June 20, Archived from the original on July 1, Archived from the original on August 21, The Verge. Archived from the original on May 2, Retrieved May 3, Vox Media.

Archived from the original on 16 June Retrieved January 22, Archived from the original on 8 February PC World. Archived from the original on 1 January Retrieved 22 August Building Apps for Windows. Archived from the original on 24 November Retrieved 2 April Archived from the original on 8 January Retrieved September 30, Archived from the original on 16 July Retrieved July 16, Archived from the original on July 5, Tech Radar.

Future US, Inc. Archived from the original on August 25, Retrieved August 27, You’ll Love Windows 10″. CNN Money. February 22, Archived from the original on 9 July Retrieved 16 August Tom’s Guide. Archived from the original on 15 October Archived from the original on November 23, Retrieved August 31, Archived from the original on 28 April Archived from the original on 15 February Retrieved 19 February CBS Interactive. Archived PDF from the original on Microsoft’s biometrics security system explained”.

Windows Experience Blog. August 27, Archived from the original on October 2, Windows Central. Xbox Wire. Archived from the original on August 28, Archived from the original on May 22, Retrieved June 9, Microsoft Docs. In Windows Vista, the User Account Control UAC initiative introduces fundamental operating system changes to enhance the experience for the non-administrative user.

Archived from the original on March 29, Retrieved March 15, March 7, Retrieved August 15, Ziff Davis Enterprise. UBM TechWeb. Archived from the original on May 27, Archived from the original on April 4, Microsoft Windows at Wikipedia’s sister projects.

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Views Read View source View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons Wikibooks Wikiversity. November 20, ; 37 years ago Release Preview Channel 22H2 Windows Installer.

Proprietary commercial software. Old version, no longer maintained: Windows 1. Old version, no longer maintained: Windows 2. Old version, no longer maintained: Windows 3. Old version, no longer maintained: Windows For Workgroups 3.

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Old version, no longer maintained: Windows Home Server Older version, yet still maintained: Windows Server Old version, no longer maintained: Windows 8. Older version, yet still maintained: Windows 8. Older version, yet still maintained: Windows Server R2. Older version, yet still maintained: Windows October 14, [52] [53]. Current stable version: Windows Server Current stable version: Windows Based on Node. Add users, assign them into groups, and set permissions to keep control of their activities.

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Windows 10 wikipedia build free download.Windows 10 (original release) – Wikipedia


For both Mobile and Mobile Enterprise, Microsoft confirmed it was exiting the consumer mobile devices market, so no successor product is available. Originally announced for use on dual-screen devices such as the Surface Neo and other potential form factors, 10X featured a modified user interface designed around context specific interactions or “postures” on such devices, including a redesigned Start menu with no tiles, and use of container technology to run Win32 software.

In practice, less than 4 GB of memory is addressable as the 4 GB space also includes the memory mapped peripherals. Windows RT and the respective Enterprise editions of Windows 7, 8, and 8. The following table summarizes possible upgrade paths that can be taken, provided that proper licenses are purchased.

There is no upgrade path that can allow Windows RT 8. New releases of Windows 10, called feature updates , [12] are released twice a year as a free update for existing Windows 10 users. Each feature update contains new features and other changes to the operating system. Windows 10 Pro, Enterprise and Education could optionally use a branch, which is defunct since version , that received updates at a slower pace. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

List of Windows 10 editons. It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled Windows 10X. Discuss July The Windows 10 kernel has a hard-coded limit of 20 processor groups, and each processor group can contain up to 64 logical processors. A logical processor is either a physical or SMT core. Processor groups are allocated based on the NUMA topology of the system. One processor group cannot span multiple sockets or NUMA nodes.

Processor groups are not available on IA; bit builds instead use an older affinity mask implementation with a limit of 32 logical processors. The limit of 20 processor groups does not change between Windows 10 editions. There is no specific limit on the number of physical cores that can be used on Windows 10, unlike Windows Server where physical cores must be additionally licensed.

The higher the level, the more information that is sent to Microsoft. Previous Windows 10 versions had a level between Required and Optional, and the older names for the levels are shown in the parenthesis.

Experience may vary by region and device. Windows Experience Blog. CBS Interactive. Windows For Your Business. The Verge. Full Specifications. Windows 10 wikipedia in hindi free new in version. Related Software. Calibre Free. Manage your windows 10 wikipedia in hindi free library and synchronize to reader devices.

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Windows 1. Skip to content. Post author: Logus Retail Post published: 25 de julho de Post category: get it 16 min de leitura Looking for: Windows 10 wikipedia in hindi free. Windows 10 — Wikipedia Click here to Download Windows 10 Windows 10 is a series of personal computer operating systems Windows 10 developed and released by Microsoft, as part of the Windows Windows 10 wikipedia in hindi free family of operating systems.

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Enter your email address to comment. Third-party IMEs may also be installed if a user feels that the provided one is insufficient for their needs. Interface languages for the operating system are free for download, but some languages are limited to certain editions of Windows. Language Interface Packs LIPs are redistributable and may be downloaded from Microsoft’s Download Center and installed for any edition of Windows XP or later — they translate most, but not all, of the Windows interface, and require a certain base language the language which Windows originally shipped with.

This is used for most languages in emerging markets. Full Language Packs, which translates the complete operating system, are only available for specific editions of Windows Ultimate and Enterprise editions of Windows Vista and 7, and all editions of Windows 8, 8. They do not require a specific base language, and are commonly used for more popular languages such as French or Chinese. These languages cannot be downloaded through the Download Center, but available as optional updates through the Windows Update service except Windows 8.

The interface language of installed applications is not affected by changes in the Windows interface language. The availability of languages depends on the application developers themselves. Windows 8 and Windows Server introduces a new Language Control Panel where both the interface and input languages can be simultaneously changed, and language packs, regardless of type, can be downloaded from a central location.

The PC Settings app in Windows 8. Changing the interface language also changes the language of preinstalled Windows Store apps such as Mail, Maps and News and certain other Microsoft-developed apps such as Remote Desktop.

The above limitations for language packs are however still in effect, except that full language packs can be installed for any edition except Single Language, which caters to emerging markets. Windows NT included support for several platforms before the x86 -based personal computer became dominant in the professional world.

Windows dropped support for all platforms, except the third generation x86 known as IA or newer in bit mode. With the introduction of the Intel Itanium architecture IA , Microsoft released new versions of Windows to support it. Itanium versions of Windows XP and Windows Server were released at the same time as their mainstream x86 counterparts. Windows Server line continues to support this platform until Windows Server ; Windows Server R2 is the last Windows operating system to support Itanium architecture.

Windows 11 is the first version to drop support for bit hardware. Windows CE officially known as Windows Embedded Compact , is an edition of Windows that runs on minimalistic computers , like satellite navigation systems and some mobile phones. The OEMs and device makers can modify and create their own user interfaces and experiences, while Windows CE provides the technical foundation to do so.

Windows CE was the core from which Windows Mobile was derived. Windows Phone 8 however, is based on the same NT-kernel as Windows 8. Xbox OS is an unofficial name given to the version of Windows that runs on Xbox consoles. Shortly after Windows was released, Microsoft switched to a fork of Perforce named Source Depot. In Microsoft announced that it would start using Git , an open source version control system created by Linus Torvalds and in May they reported that has completed migration into the Git repository.

Because of its large, decades-long history, however, the Windows codebase is not especially well suited to the decentralized nature of Linux development that Git was originally created to manage. Version market share As a percentage of desktop and laptop systems using Windows, [79] according to StatCounter data from October Use of Windows 10 has exceeded Windows 7 globally since early Including personal computers of all kinds e.

Those statistics do not include servers including so-called cloud computing , where Microsoft is known not to be a leader, with Linux used more than Windows , as Net Applications and StatCounter use web browsing as a proxy for all use. Early versions of Windows were designed at a time where malware and networking were less common, and had few built-in security features; they did not provide access privileges to allow a user to prevent other users from accessing their files, and they did not provide memory protection to prevent one process from reading or writing another process’s address space or to prevent a process from code or data used by privileged-mode code.

While the Windows 9x series offered the option of having profiles for multiple users, it had no concept of access privileges , allowing any user to edit others’ files. In addition, while it ran separate bit applications in separate address spaces, protecting an application’s code and data from being read or written by another application, it did not protect the first megabyte of memory from userland applications for compatibility reasons.

This area of memory contains code critical to the functioning of the operating system, and by writing into this area of memory an application can crash or freeze the operating system. This was a source of instability as faulty applications could accidentally write into this region, potentially corrupting important operating system memory, which usually resulted in some form of system error and halt.

Windows NT was far more secure, implementing access privileges and full memory protection, and, while bit programs meeting the DoD’s C2 security rating, [87] yet these advantages were nullified by the fact that, prior to Windows Vista , the default user account created during the setup process was an administrator account; the user, and any program the user launched, had full access to the machine.

Though Windows XP did offer an option of turning administrator accounts into limited accounts, the majority of home users did not do so, partially due to the number of programs which required administrator rights to function properly. As a result, most home users still ran as administrator all the time.

These architectural flaws, combined with Windows’s very high popularity, made Windows a frequent target of computer worm and virus writers.

Furthermore, although Windows NT and its successors are designed for security including on a network and multi-user PCs, they were not initially designed with Internet security in mind as much, since, when it was first developed in the early s, Internet use was less prevalent. In a strategy memo entitled “Trustworthy computing” sent to every Microsoft employee, Bill Gates declared that security should become Microsoft’s highest priority.

Windows Vista introduced a privilege elevation system called User Account Control. In this way, the new logon session is incapable of making changes that would affect the entire system. When logging in as a user in the Administrators group, two separate tokens are assigned. The first token contains all privileges typically awarded to an administrator, and the second is a restricted token similar to what a standard user would receive.

User applications, including the Windows shell , are then started with the restricted token, resulting in a reduced privilege environment even under an Administrator account.

When an application requests higher privileges or “Run as administrator” is clicked, UAC will prompt for confirmation and, if consent is given including administrator credentials if the account requesting the elevation is not a member of the administrators group , start the process using the unrestricted token.

Leaked documents published by WikiLeaks , codenamed Vault 7 and dated from to , detail the capabilities of the CIA to perform electronic surveillance and cyber warfare, [95] such as the ability to compromise operating systems such as Windows. In August , computer experts reported that the BlueKeep security vulnerability , CVE – , that potentially affects older unpatched Windows versions via the program’s Remote Desktop Protocol , allowing for the possibility of remote code execution , may now include related flaws, collectively named DejaBlue , affecting newer Windows versions i.

Microsoft releases security patches through its Windows Update service approximately once a month usually the second Tuesday of the month , although critical updates are made available at shorter intervals when necessary. Today, Windows integrates the Windows Defender antivirus, which is seen as one of the best available. These global groups then hold other groups or users depending on different Windows versions used.

This system varies from other vendor products such as Linux and NetWare due to the ‘static’ allocation of permission being applied directly to the file or folder. Owing to the operating system’s popularity, a number of applications have been released that aim to provide compatibility with Windows applications, either as a compatibility layer for another operating system, or as a standalone system that can run software written for Windows out of the box.

These include:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Computer operating systems. For the part of a building, see Window. For other uses, see Windows disambiguation. Closed-source Source-available through Shared Source Initiative. Main article: Microsoft Windows version history. See also: List of Microsoft Windows versions. Main articles: Windows 1. Main articles: Windows 3. Main article: Windows NT. Main articles: Windows NT 3.

Main article: Windows XP. Main article: Windows Vista. Main article: Windows 7. Main articles: Windows 8 and Windows 8. Main article: Windows See also: Azure Virtual Desktop. Main article: Xbox system software.

Table of Windows versions. Old version. Older version, still maintained. Animations have been improved for opening, maximizing, minimizing, and restoring down windows, as well as switching between virtual desktops. Current builds released to the public also suggest a new means of updating the operating system, as each build has been updated through a function within Windows Update rather than through clean installs.

A feature showed off at the announcement presentation in September, named Continuum, shows the ability for the Start Menu to switch between the traditional Start Menu and a new version of the Start Screen from Windows 8. Build , which was leaked in December , showed off a more complete user interface, introducing an opaque taskbar and cleaner app windows, as well as a cleaner search bar in the taskbar where Cortana can be accessed. The build also features entirely new apps for the Calculator, Alarms, Photos, and Windows Store, which appear more desktop friendly.

On January 21, , Microsoft held an event on the future of Windows A new build was shown off, which shows off a more unified and complete user interface. Cortana is now integrated and functioning properly within Windows. A cleaner Start Menu, coded using XAML, was also presented, along with the ability to switch between the standard and full-screen modes of the Start Menu.

Windows 10 was also unveiled for the first time on mobile phones. With this announcement came the presentation of a new Action Center with interactive notifications for both desktop and phones. New universal apps for both systems were unveiled, including new apps for Photos, Outlook Mail, People and Calendar.

The rumored ” Project: Spartan “, a new browser that could potentially replace Internet Explorer , was unveiled and shown off, with integrated Cortana, a new annotation mode that works with Microsoft OneNote and a new Reading List. The build shown off at throughout most of the event was Build , though the next build is reported to be Build , [4] and not all the features shown off at the event would be immediately available. Note: To edit wiki pages, people need permission to contribute to a wiki.

On the wiki page that you want to edit, click Page , and then click Edit. Use the buttons on the ribbon to format text, and insert other content, such as pictures, tables, hyperlinks, and Web Parts. To add wiki links to other pages, type the name of the page surrounded by double square brackets: [[Page Name]]. For example, to add a wiki link to a page named “Project Dates,” type: [[Project Dates]]. When you start to type [[ , if the page exists, you’ll be able to select it from the list.

If the page that you are linking to does not exist yet, you can create a link to the page anyway. After you save the edited page, the placeholder link you just created will have a dotted line beneath it. The actual page will be created later when someone else clicks the link to the page.

When you are finished editing the page, click Page and then click Save. Tip: You can add more content later or change content that you have entered by clicking Edit. If you created a placeholder link, you can later click the link to create and edit the page. From the wiki page that you want to add users, click Share. Enter the names, email addresses, or the alias ‘Everyone’. If you have team email aliases such as ‘Engineering’, or any other group alias, you can also enter those here.

As you enter the names, the server verifies the existence of the user account or alias. To set permissions for the new users, click Show Options. Under Select a group or permission level or Select a permission level , select one of the groups or permission level such as Read, Edit, or Full control.

To see the list of all users who are already sharing the site, click Shared with. When you check out a wiki page, you ensure that others cannot make changes to the page while you edit it.

While the page is checked out, you can edit and save it, close it, and reopen it. Other users cannot change the page or see your changes until you check it in. From the wiki page that you want to edit, click Page and then click Check Out. Note: When you check a page out, you are only reserving it for yourself, it doesn’t save, download, or edit. You need to choose what you want to do. Note: To check in the wiki page after editing, click the Check In button.

You can add a picture from your computer, web address or from your SharePoint site directly to your wiki page. If you are not already editing the wiki page, click Edit. Click where you want to insert the picture, and then click the Insert tab on the ribbon.

Browse to the picture on your computer, select the library that you want to upload the picture to, and then click OK. You may need to fill in additional information about the picture you are uploading. In the Alternative Text box, type some text to describe the picture. Alternative text or Alt text appears as tooltip text when readers point to the picture.

Alt text also helps people using screen readers understand the content of pictures. In the Select an Asset box, select a library or folder containing the picture you want to insert, Then click the picture, and then click Insert. You may need to fill in additional information about the picture you are inserting.

You can use the commands on the Image tab to add Alt Text for your image, change its appearance, and position it on the page. Wiki pages support the placement of links to other web or SharePoint sites outside the wiki across the top of the page and on the Quick Launch bar.

These links differ from wiki links placed directly on the wiki page by users as they are specifically managed by the wiki administrator. You can also drag and drop links to rearrange them. On the wiki page that you want to edit, click Edit Links at the top of the page, or Edit Links in the Quick Launch bar.

Click the Link gadget. Enter the text for the Text to Display field for the link. This determines how the link appears on the page. Enter the URL address in the Address field. To rearrange links in the Quick Launch bar or at the top of the wiki page, click Edit Links , select any link, and drag it to a new position in its section.

To edit links in the Quick Launch bar or at the top of the wiki page, click Edit Links , select any link, and then click to place the cursor in any location of the link text. Click the Edit a Link tool to edit the contents of the link, including its address. You can use wiki links to link pages together by simply using the page name surrounded by double square brackets.

You create wiki links the same way whether you are linking to existing wiki pages or pages that do not exist yet. For example, if your team will be creating a link later for Training Issues, you can go ahead and insert the link to the page now by typing [[Training Issues]]. After you save the page, the link to your future page appears with a dotted line under it.

To create the page later, someone can click the underlined placeholder link and then click Create. Type [[ and then begin typing the name of the page. The wiki will suggest page names that start with what you are typing. Type a new page name followed by ]]. If you type a new page name, you will create a link to a page which has not yet been created.

Your finished page name should be surrounded by double square brackets, like this: [[Page Name]]. Tips: To quickly add a link from a wiki page back to the home page for your wiki, type [[Home]].


Windows 10 wikipedia build free download

The user has the option to disable the new features and return to the legacy console if they dwonload. The bit variants require a CPU that supports certain instructions. March 16, Retrieved May 22,❿